Cryogenics and Refrigeration
Cryogenics is a type of science that deals with the production and effects of extremely low temperatures typically produced through the Joule-Thomson effect. This is a process that utilizes temperature, volume, and even pressure to create these low temperatures. In order for temperatures to be considered cryogenic, they need to be at least -1000C, however, there is disagreement being that according to some other sources they must go as low as -1500C. At these temperatures, gases turn into liquid with the ability to serve many different purposes.